Cheng, Hans H. The chicken genetic map: a tool for the future.
Poultry Digest, June 1994, Vol. 53, No. 6: 24-28.
Chicken Cloning Could Redefine Factory Farming, Environmental
News Service (ENS) World News, August
The Chicken Industry: New Products Promise Change. Genetic
Technology News, August 1988, Vol. 8, No. 8: 9, 11.
Clark, Andrew. At This Price? Guardian, March 7, 2001.
Clipsham, Robert. Beak Injuries. Bird Talk Magazine, March
Coates, Marie E. The Biologists’ Debt to the Domestic Fowl.
British Poultry Science, 1986, Vol. 27: 3-10.
Cochrane, Bruce. Processed Egg Feed Additive Generating Interest
in Europe. Farmscape.ca, November 29, 2001.
Coghlan, Andy. Crack an egg, maybe even cure a disease.
Tuscaloosa News (Alabama), December
15, 1999. (Article from New Scientist.)
Colgate-Palmolive. Product Safety Research Policy (brochure),
Cook, R.F. et al. Liver-Specific Expression of a Phosphoenolpyruvate
Carboxykinase-neo Gene in Genetically Modified Chickens.
Poultry Science, 1993, Vol. 72: 554-567.
Craig, James V. Domestic Animal Behavior: Causes and Implications
for Animal Care and Management. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981. Quoted in Davis
Craig, J.V. et al. Beak Trimming Effects on Beak Length and Feed
Usage for Growth and Egg Production. Poultry Science, 1992,
Vol. 71: 1830-41.
Craig-Schmidt, Margaret et al. The Essential Fatty Acid Deficient
Chicken as a Model for Cystic Fibrosis. American Journal
of Clinical Nutrition, 1986, Vol. 44: 816-24.
Crenson, Matt, Associated Press. Virus linked to obesity in mice,
chickens, experiment suggests. Virginian-Pilot, July 28, 2000: A8.
Cunningham, D.L. Beak-Trimming Effects on Performance, Behavior
and Welfare of Chickens: A Review. Journal of Applied Poultry
Research, 1992, Vol. 1: 129-134.
Cunningham, D.L. et al. Beak trimming and sex effects on behavior
and performance traits of large white turkeys. Poultry Science,
1992, Vol. 71: 1606-1614.
Danbury, T.C. et al. Self-selection of the
analgesic drug carprofen by lame broiler chickens. Veterinary
Record, March 11, 2000, Vol. 146: 307-311.
Davis, Gary S. and Ken E. Anderson. Manipulations to diet, lighting
boost duck egg output. Feedstuffs, March 16, 1992:
Davis, Karen. Speaking for Dr. Frankenstein’s Creatures Today.
Animals’ Agenda, March, 1990: 48-49.
Davis, Karen. Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: An Inside
Look at the Modern Poultry Industry. Summertown,
TN: Book Publishing Company, 1996.
Dayton, Sylvia. Chicken’s specs highlight visual defects.
New Scientist, June
9, 1988: 47.
Death, Nerve Damage Seen in Chickens Given DEET/Pyridostigmine.
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, April
12, 1995: 36.
Dickens, J.A. et al. the Effects of Electrical Stimulation During
Bleeding on Shear Values and Cook Loss of Breast Fillets from Mature
Chickens Deboned at Two or Twenty-Four Hours Post-Evisceration.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2002, Vol. 11:
Dudley-Cash, William A. Latest research findings reported at annual
poultry science meeting. Feedstuffs, September 7, 1992: 11.
Duncan, I[an].J.H. et al. Behavioural Consequences of Partial Beak
Amputation (Beak Trimming) in Poultry. British Poultry Science,
1989, Vol. 30: 479-88.
Duncan, Ian J.H. and Joy Mench. Does Hunger Hurt? Letter.
Poultry Science, June 2000, Vol. 79, No. 6: 934.
Duncan, Ian J.H. Animal Welfare Issues in the Poultry Industry:
Is There a Lesson to Be Learned? Journal of Applied Animal
Welfare Science, Vol. 4, No. 3: 207-21.
Ediger, Raymond. The Use of Farm Animals in Biomedical Research.
Maryland Department of Agriculture, 6 pp.
Ednet. CVM to Co-Sponsor Public Symposium on Livestock Cloning,
July 2002. This symposium follows a 2-day symposium held by the
Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology on Biotech in the Barnyard:
Implications of Genetically Engineered Animals. For Ednet go to
Elias, Paul. Biotechnology companies aim to mass-produce cloned
chickens. Associated Press, January 10, 2002.
Emslie, Kerry R. and S. Nade. Acute Hematogenous Staphylococcal
Osteomyelitis: The Effects of Surgical Drilling and Curettage in
an Animal Model. Pathology, 1986, Vol. 18: 227-33.
Engineered Animals, NPR Morning Edition, December 4, 2001.
Etches, Robert (Dept. of Animal and Poultry Science, University
of Guelph, Ontario). Beyond Freezing Semen. First International
Symposium on the Artificial Insemination of Poultry. University
of Maryland-College Park,
MD. June 17-19, 1994.
FASS [Federation of Animal Science Societies]. Guide For
the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research
and Teaching. First Revised Edition, January 1999.
Ferket, Peter. Growing Bigger, Faster. WATT PoultryUSA,
February 2002: 40-49.
Fulton, Linda et al. The Laboratory Chicken. Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press, 2002.
Gardner, Murray B. and Paul A. Luciw. Animal Modals of AIDS.
FASEB Journal, 1989, Vol. 3: 2593-4.
Geist, Kathy. Letter. Friendly Vegetarian (Friends Vegetarian
Society of North America), Fall 1991, Vol. 37. Her letter
describes her visit to a Mennonite family factory farm.
Gentle, M[ichael].J. and L.N. Hunter. Physiological and behavioural
responses associated with feather removal in Gallus gallus
var domesticus. Research in Veterinary Science, Vol.
50, 1990: 95-101.
Gentle, Michael J. et al. Behavioural evidence for persistent pain
following partial beak amputation in chickens. Applied Animal
Behaviour Science, 1990, Vol. 27: 149-157.
Gentle, Michael J. Gentle. Behavioural and Physiological Responses
to Pain in the Chicken.Symposium 34. ACTA XX Congressus Internationalis
Ornithologici.Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Ornithological
Congress Trust Board, 1991: 1915-20.
Gopalakrishnakone, P. Muscular Dystrophy in White Pekin
Ducks. American Journal of Pathology, 1986, Vol. 125: 218-19.
Graves, Andrea. Clone farm. New Scientist, August 18, 2001.
Greene, Jan. Animal rights groups blast contact lens study. Telegram-Tribune (San Luis Obispo, CA), April 3, 1992:
Gvaryahu, G. and N. Snapir. Contact Lenses for Laying
Hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 1997, Vol.
Gyles, Roy. Technological Options for Improving the Nutritional
Value of Poultry Products. Designing Foods: Animal Product
Options in the Marketplace. Washington, DC:
Press, 1988: 297-310.
Hala, Karel. Hypothesis: Immunogenetic Analysis of Spontaneous
Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Obese Strain (OS) Chickens: A Two-Gene
Family Model. Immunobiology, 1988, Vol. 177: 354-73.
Harrison, Ruth. Animal Machines. London:
Vincent Stuart, 1964.
Hartini, S. et al. Effects of Light Intensity During Rearing and
Beak Trimming and Dietary Fiber Sources on Mortality, Egg Production,
and Performance of ISA Brown Laying Hens. Journal of Applied
Poultry Research, 2002. Vol. 11: 104-10.
Harvey, A.J. et al. Consistent Production
of Transgenic Chickens Using Replication-Deficient Retroviral Vectors
and High-Throughput Screening Procedures. Poultry Science,
February 2002, Vol. 81, No. 2: 202-212.
Harvey, R.B. et al. Validation of Impaired
Renal Function Chick Model with Uranyl Nitrate. Bulletin
of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 1986, Vol. 36:
Heyde, Christopher J. NABR’s Misinformation Cripples Animal Welfare
and Scientific Integrity. AWI Quarterly (Animal Welfare Institute),
Summer 2002, Vol. 51, No. -15.
Holmes, Donna J. and Steve N. Austand. Birds as Animal Models for
the comparative biology of aging: a prospectus. Journal of
Gerontology, 195, Vol. 50a (Biological Sciences): B59-66.
Holt, P[eter] S. Effects of Induced Moulting on Immune Responses
of Hens. British Poultry Science, 1992, Vol. 33: 165-75.
Holt, Peter S. and Robert E. Porter, Jr. Effect of Induced Molting
on the Course of Infection and Transmission of Salmonella
enteritidis in White Leghorn Hens of Different Ages. Poultry
Science, 1992, Vol. 71: 1842-48.
Holt, Peter S. and Robert E. Porter, Jr. Effect of Induced Molting
on the Recurrence of a Previous Salmonella enteritidis infection.
Poultry Science, 1993, Vol. 72: 2069-78.
Holt, P[eter] S. Holt et al. Effect of Two Different Molting Procedures
on a Salmonella enteritidis Infection. Poultry Science,
1994, Vol. 73: 1267-75.
Holt, Peter S. Horizontal Transmission of Salmonella enteritidis
in Molted and Unmolted Laying Chickens. Avian Diseases, 1995,
Vol. 30: 239-49.
Holt, Peter S. Letter to Karen Davis, March
Holt, Peter S. With Bayer Corp., Watkinsville, GA,
to find ways to prevent older hens from becoming infected with
Salmonella during molting. Quarterly Report (USDA-Agricultural
Research Service), April-June, 1998: 2.
Howie, Michael. Modified egg yolks may provide antibodies to livestock.
9, 1997: 11.
Hubbard Farms. Poultry Tribune, September 1995: 72.
Hughes, Richard. Codeine Analgesic and Morphine Hyperalgesic Effects
on Thermal Nociception in Domestic Fowl. Pharmacology, Biochemistry,
and Behavior, 1990, Vol. 35: 567-70.
Hughes, Richard A. and Kenneth J. Sufka. The Ontogeny of Thermal
Nociception in Domestic Fowl: Thermal Stimulus Intensity and Isolation
Effects. Developmental Psychobiology, 1990, Vol. 23, No.
Kelland, Kate. Reuters (London). British
Record on Animal Experiments Slammed, July 24, 2002.
Kimbrell, Andrew. Facing the Future: Genetic Engineering.
The Animals’ Agenda, 1995, Vol. 15, No. -28.
Kinutani, Masae et al. Postnatal Development of a Demyelinating
Disease in Avian Spinal Cord Chimeras. Cell, April 25, 1986, Vol. 45: 307-14.
Koelkebeck, K[en].W. et al. Early Postmolt Performance of Laying
Hens Fed a Low-Protein Corn Molt Diet Supplemented with Spent Hen
Meal. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2001, Vol.
Koelkebeck, Ken W. et al. Application of Non-Feed Removal Methods
for Molting Commercial Layers. Paper presented at the WATT Poultry
Summit IV Focusing on Bird Welfare in the Commercial Layer Industry,
October 16, 2001.
Kolata, Gina. Researchers Find Big Risk Of Defect in Cloning Animals.
New York Times, March
Lay, D.C., Jr. and M.E. Wilson. Development of the Chicken as a
Model for Prenatal Stress. Journal of Animal Science,
July 2002, Vol. 80, No. 7: 1954-1961.
Leach, Roland M. Jr. Poultry industry should reconsider if bigger
is better. Feedstuffs, August
26, 1996: 10.
Lee, S. –H. et al. Signalling: Facial development in the embryo.
Nature, December 20/27, 2001.
Love, Jamie et al. Transgenic Birds by DNA Microinjection.
Bio/Technology, January 1994, Vol. 12: 60-63.
Mather, Robin. Fowl Play. Detroit News, July 6, 1993: 1D-2D.
McArdle, John and Eric Kleiman. Tobacco Kills. AV
Magazine. (American Anti-Vivisection Society), December 1994: 7-10.
McArdle, John. Bye, Bye Birdies. AV Magazine, Spring 1999:
Milgrom, Lionel. Test-tube chicks pave way for ‘super-animals.’
New Scientist, February
4, 1988: 36.
Morgan, Robin. Chicken Genomic: From Basics to Applications. National
Breeders Roundtable Program, St. Louis, MO,
May 2-3, 2002.
Muirhead, Sarah. Control of heat stress essential to keep hens
laying in hot weather. Feedstuffs, April
5, 1993: 13.
Nakamura, Masayuki et al. Intratracheal Infection of Chickens with
Salmonella enteritidis and the Effect of Feed and Water Deprivation.
Avian Diseases, 1995, Vol. 39: 853-58.
North, Mack O. and Donald D. Bell. Commercial Chicken Production
Manual, 4th ed., New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
Patterson, Charles. Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of
Animals and the Holocaust. New York: Lantern
Peguri, Alfredo and Craig Coon. Effect of Feather Coverage and
Temperature on Layer Performance. Poultry Science, 1993,
Vol. 72: 1318-29.
Penn, Arthur and Carroll A. Snyder. Inhalation of Sidestream Cigarette
Smoke Accelerates Development of Arteriosclerotic Plaques.
Circulation (Journal of the American Heart Association), October
1993, Vol. 88, No. 4, Part 1: 1820-25.
Perspective. Meatnews.com, Vol. 4, No. 23, June 5, 2002.
Recombinant Proteins Shown to be an Effective Alternative to Antibiotic
Use in Poultry Diets. www.ventriabio.com, June 13, 2002.
Research aims at fast-free molt. Poultry Tribune, May 27, 2002.
Reuters. Genetically modified chickens could be the drug factories
of the future, New Scientist magazine said Wednesday. November
Rifkin, Jeremy. Algeny. New York:
Viking Press, 1983.
Riordan, Teresa. Patents: Helping Reduce Pain and Shock.
New York Times, November
24, 1997: D2.
Roberts, Thomas. J. et al. Muscular Force in Running Turkeys:
The Economy of Minimizing Work. Science, February
21, 1997, Vol. 275: 1113-15.
Rogers, Lesley J. Minds of Their Own: Thinking and Awareness
in Animals. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. First published 1997.
Roland, D.A. et al. Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome in Hens and Its Relationship
to Shell-Less Eggs. Poultry Science, 1984, Vol. 63:
791-97. See also Davis, pp. 135-136.
Rolon, A.R. et al. Twenty-four-hour feed withdrawal and limited
feeding as alternative methods for induction of molt in laying hens.
Poultry Science, 1993, Vol. 72: 776-785.
Sanner, Brigid McHugh. American Heart Association. Letter, March
Schade, Rudiger et al. The Production of Avian (Egg Yolk) Antibodies:
IgY. ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals). 1996, Vol.
Seachrist, Lisa. Growing In and Out of Focus. Science News,
November 11, 1995, Vol. 148: 318-19.
Shanghai Starts Up Trans-Genic Chicken Industry. Modern
Agriculture Weekly, February 26, 2002: 1. Info@AsiaPort.Com
Sigurdson, Chris. Purdue’s ‘kinder, gentler chicken’ moves into
real-world test. Feedstuffs, January 16, 1995: 47.
Smith, Page and Charles Daniel. The Chicken Book. Athens:
University of Georgia Press, 2000. First published 1975. Quoted
in Davis 1996, 25.
Solomon, Irene C and Thomas P. Adamson. Static muscular contraction
elicits a pressor reflex in the chicken. American Journal
of Physiology, 1997, Vol. 272: R759-65.
Stress from handling and beak trimming similar. Poultry
Digest, October 1996: 384. Summary of a study by Philip Glatz, South
Australia Parafield Poultry Research Center (Poultry Forum,
Taylor, C. Richard. Locomotion – Idling Metabolism and Gait Dynamics
(Abstract, NIH Grant), March 13, 1997.
Thoraval, P. et al. Germline transmission of exogenous genes in
chickens using helper-free ecotropic avian leukosis virus-based
vectors. Transgenic Research, November 1995, Vol.
4, No. 6: 369-376.
Tillman, Philip. Integrating Agricultural and Biomedical Research
Policies: Conflicts and Opportunities. ILAR News (Institutional
Laboratory Animal Resources, National Academy of Sciences), Spring
1994, Vol. 36, No. 2: 29-35.
Turner, Jacky. The Gene and the Stable Door: Biotechnology
and Farm Animals. Compassion in World Farming (UK), January
UEP plans research about induced molting practice. Feedstuffs,
August 7, 2000: 8.
UPC (United Poultry Concerns). Red Contact Lenses for Laying
Hens: A Benighted Concept, 1992. Investigative Report, 4 pp.
U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.
Points to Consider in the Food Safety Evaluation of Transgenic
Animals from Transgenic Animal Research, Washington DC March
1994. 8 pp.
U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library. Animal
Welfare Information Center. Stress in Poultry January 1979-1990.
QB 91-01, Quick Bibliography Series, October 1990.
Wade, Nicholas. Bioengineers Turn to Hen’s Teeth. New York
Times, August 22, 2000: D5.
Water, Judy van de and M. Eric Gershwin. Avian Scleroderma: An
Inherited Fibrotic Disease of White Leghorn Chickens Resembling
Progressive Systemic Sclerosis. American Journal of Pathology,
1995, Vol. 120: 478-82.
Webster, A. Bruce. Phone interview with Karen Davis, October 15,
Webster, A. B[ruce]. Behavior of White Leghorn Laying Hens After
Withdrawal of Feed. Poultry Science, 2000, Vol. 79:
Williamson, Carol. Letter to Karen Davis, June 14, 1999.