United Poultry Concerns  

The Experimental Use of Chickens and Other Birds in Biomedical and Agricultural Research


Abate, Tom. Origen Far From Chickenhearted About Bioengineering. San Francisco Chronicle, July 10, 2000.

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Aho, Paul. Feathered Success. WATT PoultryUSA, February 2002: 30-38. All references to Paul Aho except for the email correspondence cited in Note 2 are from this article.

Aho, Paul. Email to Karen Davis, July 30, 2002.

Astronauts on shuttle rotate eggs, watch fish. Washington Post, September 15, 1992: A9.

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Birdbrains susceptible to becoming dopeheads. Washington Times, August 25, 1992.

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Brown, DeNeen L. Brave Canadian Chickens on Red Alert for Mosquito Invasion. Washington Post, August 28, 2000: A15.

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Chicken Cloning Could Redefine Factory Farming, Environmental News Service (ENS) World News, August 16, 2001.

The Chicken Industry: New Products Promise Change. Genetic Technology News, August 1988, Vol. 8, No. 8: 9, 11.

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Clipsham, Robert. Beak Injuries. Bird Talk Magazine, March 1995: 44-56.

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Cochrane, Bruce. Processed Egg Feed Additive Generating Interest in Europe. Farmscape.ca, November 29, 2001

Coghlan, Andy. Crack an egg, maybe even cure a disease. Tuscaloosa News (Alabama), December 15, 1999. (Article from New Scientist.)

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Cook, R.F. et al. Liver-Specific Expression of a Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase-neo Gene in Genetically Modified Chickens. Poultry Science, 1993, Vol. 72: 554-567.

Craig, James V. Domestic Animal Behavior: Causes and Implications for Animal Care and Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981. Quoted in Davis 1996, 67.

Craig, J.V. et al. Beak Trimming Effects on Beak Length and Feed Usage for Growth and Egg Production. Poultry Science, 1992, Vol. 71: 1830-41.

Craig-Schmidt, Margaret et al. The Essential Fatty Acid Deficient Chicken as a Model for Cystic Fibrosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1986, Vol. 44: 816-24.

Crenson, Matt, Associated Press. Virus linked to obesity in mice, chickens, experiment suggests. Virginian-Pilot, July 28, 2000: A8.

Cunningham, D.L. Beak-Trimming Effects on Performance, Behavior and Welfare of Chickens: A Review. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 1992, Vol. 1: 129-134.

Cunningham, D.L. et al. Beak trimming and sex effects on behavior and performance traits of large white turkeys. Poultry Science, 1992, Vol. 71: 1606-1614.

Danbury, T.C. et al. Self-selection of the analgesic drug carprofen by lame broiler chickens. Veterinary Record, March 11, 2000, Vol. 146: 307-311.

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Davis, Karen. Speaking for Dr. Frankenstein’s Creatures Today. Animals’ Agenda, March, 1990: 48-49.

Davis, Karen. Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: An Inside Look at the Modern Poultry Industry. Summertown, TN: Book Publishing Company, 1996.

Dayton, Sylvia. Chicken’s specs highlight visual defects. New Scientist, June 9, 1988: 47.

Death, Nerve Damage Seen in Chickens Given DEET/Pyridostigmine. Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, April 12, 1995: 36.

Dickens, J.A. et al. the Effects of Electrical Stimulation During Bleeding on Shear Values and Cook Loss of Breast Fillets from Mature Chickens Deboned at Two or Twenty-Four Hours Post-Evisceration. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2002, Vol. 11: 111-16.

Dudley-Cash, William A. Latest research findings reported at annual poultry science meeting. Feedstuffs, September 7, 1992: 11.

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Duncan, Ian J.H. and Joy Mench. Does Hunger Hurt? Letter. Poultry Science, June 2000, Vol. 79, No. 6: 934.

Duncan, Ian J.H. Animal Welfare Issues in the Poultry Industry: Is There a Lesson to Be Learned? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, Vol. 4, No. 3: 207-21.

Durham, Sharon. Chicken Feather Follicles Don’t Harbor Bacteria. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm, June 25, 2002.

Ediger, Raymond. The Use of Farm Animals in Biomedical Research. Maryland Department of Agriculture, 6 pp.

Ednet. CVM to Co-Sponsor Public Symposium on Livestock Cloning, July 2002. This symposium follows a 2-day symposium held by the Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology on Biotech in the Barnyard: Implications of Genetically Engineered Animals. For Ednet go to www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/ednet.html.

Elias, Paul. Biotechnology companies aim to mass-produce cloned chickens. Associated Press, January 10, 2002

Emslie, Kerry R. and S. Nade. Acute Hematogenous Staphylococcal Osteomyelitis: The Effects of Surgical Drilling and Curettage in an Animal Model. Pathology, 1986, Vol. 18: 227-33.

Engineered Animals, NPR Morning Edition, December 4, 2001.

Etches, Robert (Dept. of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Ontario). Beyond Freezing Semen. First International Symposium on the Artificial Insemination of Poultry. University of Maryland-College Park, MD. June 17-19, 1994.

FASS [Federation of Animal Science Societies]. Guide For the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. First Revised Edition, January 1999.

Ferket, Peter. Growing Bigger, Faster. WATT PoultryUSA, February 2002: 40-49.

Fulton, Linda et al. The Laboratory Chicken. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002.

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Gentle, Michael J. Gentle. Behavioural and Physiological Responses to Pain in the Chicken.Symposium 34. ACTA XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici.Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board, 1991: 1915-20.

Gentle, M[ichael].J. Pain In Birds. Animal Welfare, Vol. 1, 1992: 235-247.

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Hartini, S. et al. Effects of Light Intensity During Rearing and Beak Trimming and Dietary Fiber Sources on Mortality, Egg Production, and Performance of ISA Brown Laying Hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2002. Vol. 11: 104-10.

Harvey, A.J. et al. Consistent Production of Transgenic Chickens Using Replication-Deficient Retroviral Vectors and High-Throughput Screening Procedures. Poultry Science, February 2002, Vol. 81, No. 2: 202-212.

Harvey, R.B. et al. Validation of Impaired Renal Function Chick Model with Uranyl Nitrate. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 1986, Vol. 36: 67-72.

Heyde, Christopher J. NABR’s Misinformation Cripples Animal Welfare and Scientific Integrity. AWI Quarterly (Animal Welfare Institute), Summer 2002, Vol. 51, No. 3: 14-15.

Holmes, Donna J. and Steve N. Austand. Birds as Animal Models for the comparative biology of aging: a prospectus. Journal of Gerontology, 195, Vol. 50a (Biological Sciences): B59-66.

Holt, P[eter] S. Effects of Induced Moulting on Immune Responses of Hens. British Poultry Science, 1992, Vol. 33: 165-75.

Holt, Peter S. and Robert E. Porter, Jr. Effect of Induced Molting on the Course of Infection and Transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in White Leghorn Hens of Different Ages. Poultry Science, 1992, Vol. 71: 1842-48.

Holt, Peter S. and Robert E. Porter, Jr. Effect of Induced Molting on the Recurrence of a Previous Salmonella enteritidis infection. Poultry Science, 1993, Vol. 72: 2069-78.

Holt, P[eter] S. Holt et al. Effect of Two Different Molting Procedures on a Salmonella enteritidis Infection. Poultry Science, 1994, Vol. 73: 1267-75.

Holt, Peter S. Horizontal Transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in Molted and Unmolted Laying Chickens. Avian Diseases, 1995, Vol. 30: 239-49.

Holt, Peter S. Letter to Karen Davis, March 10, 1998.

Holt, Peter S. With Bayer Corp., Watkinsville, GA, to find ways to prevent older hens from becoming infected with Salmonella during molting. Quarterly Report (USDA-Agricultural Research Service), April-June, 1998: 2.

Howie, Michael. Modified egg yolks may provide antibodies to livestock. Feedstuffs, June 9, 1997: 11.

Hubbard Farms. Poultry Tribune, September 1995: 72.

Hughes, Richard. Codeine Analgesic and Morphine Hyperalgesic Effects on Thermal Nociception in Domestic Fowl. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 1990, Vol. 35: 567-70.

Hughes, Richard A. and Kenneth J. Sufka. The Ontogeny of Thermal Nociception in Domestic Fowl: Thermal Stimulus Intensity and Isolation Effects. Developmental Psychobiology, 1990, Vol. 23, No. 2: 129-140.

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Koelkebeck, Ken W. et al. Application of Non-Feed Removal Methods for Molting Commercial Layers. Paper presented at the WATT Poultry Summit IV Focusing on Bird Welfare in the Commercial Layer Industry, October 16, 2001.

Kolata, Gina. Researchers Find Big Risk Of Defect in Cloning Animals. New York Times, March 25, 2001.

Lay, D.C., Jr. and M.E. Wilson. Development of the Chicken as a Model for Prenatal Stress. Journal of Animal Science, July 2002, Vol. 80, No. 7: 1954-1961.

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Love, Jamie et al. Transgenic Birds by DNA Microinjection. Bio/Technology, January 1994, Vol. 12: 60-63.

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McArdle, John and Eric Kleiman. Tobacco Kills. AV Magazine. (American Anti-Vivisection Society), December 1994: 7-10.

McArdle, John. Bye, Bye Birdies. AV Magazine, Spring 1999: 8-11, 24.

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Peguri, Alfredo and Craig Coon. Effect of Feather Coverage and Temperature on Layer Performance. Poultry Science, 1993, Vol. 72: 1318-29.

Penn, Arthur and Carroll A. Snyder. Inhalation of Sidestream Cigarette Smoke Accelerates Development of Arteriosclerotic Plaques. Circulation (Journal of the American Heart Association), October 1993, Vol. 88, No. 4, Part 1: 1820-25.

Perspective. Meatnews.com, Vol. 4, No. 23, June 5, 2002.

Recombinant Proteins Shown to be an Effective Alternative to Antibiotic Use in Poultry Diets. www.ventriabio.com, June 13, 2002.

Research aims at fast-free molt. Poultry Tribune, May 27, 2002.

Reuters. Genetically modified chickens could be the drug factories of the future, New Scientist magazine said Wednesday. November 11, 1999.

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Roland, D.A. et al. Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome in Hens and Its Relationship to Shell-Less Eggs. Poultry Science, 1984, Vol. 63: 791-97. See also Davis, pp. 135-136.

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UPC (United Poultry Concerns). Red Contact Lenses for Laying Hens: A Benighted Concept, 1992. Investigative Report, 4 pp.

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